# Tractography Clustering - Available Metrics

This page lists available metrics that can be used by the tractography clustering framework. For every metric a brief description is provided explaining: what it does, when it’s useful and how to use it. If you are not familiar with the tractography clustering framework, check this tutorial Clustering framework.

Note: All examples assume a function get_streamlines exists. We defined here a simple function to do so. It imports the necessary modules and load a small streamline bundle.

def get_streamlines():
from dipy.data import get_fnames

fname = get_fnames('fornix')

return fornix.streamlines


## Average of Pointwise Euclidean Metric

What: Instances of AveragePointwiseEuclideanMetric first compute the pointwise Euclidean distance between two sequences of same length then return the average of those distances. This metric takes as inputs two features that are sequences containing the same number of elements.

When: By default the QuickBundles clustering will resample your streamlines on-the-fly so they have 12 points. If for some reason you want to avoid this and you made sure all your streamlines have already the same number of points, you can manually provide an instance of AveragePointwiseEuclideanMetric to QuickBundles. Since the default Feature is the IdentityFeature the streamlines won’t be resampled thus saving some computational time.

Note: Inputs must be sequences of same length.

from dipy.segment.clustering import QuickBundles
from dipy.segment.metric import AveragePointwiseEuclideanMetric

# Get some streamlines.
streamlines = get_streamlines()  # Previously defined.

# Make sure our streamlines have the same number of points.
from dipy.tracking.streamline import set_number_of_points
streamlines = set_number_of_points(streamlines, nb_points=12)

# Create the instance of AveragePointwiseEuclideanMetric to use.
metric = AveragePointwiseEuclideanMetric()
qb = QuickBundles(threshold=10., metric=metric)
clusters = qb.cluster(streamlines)

print("Nb. clusters:", len(clusters))
print("Cluster sizes:", map(len, clusters))

Nb. clusters: 4

Cluster sizes: [64, 191, 44, 1]


## Sum of Pointwise Euclidean Metric

What: Instances of SumPointwiseEuclideanMetric first compute the pointwise Euclidean distance between two sequences of same length then return the sum of those distances.

When: This metric mainly exists because it is used internally by AveragePointwiseEuclideanMetric.

Note: Inputs must be sequences of same length.

from dipy.segment.clustering import QuickBundles
from dipy.segment.metric import SumPointwiseEuclideanMetric

# Get some streamlines.
streamlines = get_streamlines()  # Previously defined.

# Make sure our streamlines have the same number of points.
from dipy.tracking.streamline import set_number_of_points
nb_points = 12
streamlines = set_number_of_points(streamlines, nb_points=nb_points)

# Create the instance of SumPointwiseEuclideanMetric to use.
metric = SumPointwiseEuclideanMetric()
qb = QuickBundles(threshold=10.*nb_points, metric=metric)
clusters = qb.cluster(streamlines)

print("Nb. clusters:", len(clusters))
print("Cluster sizes:", map(len, clusters))

Nb. clusters: 4

Cluster sizes: [64, 191, 44, 1]


## Cosine Metric

What: Instances of CosineMetric compute the cosine distance between two vectors (for more information see the wiki page).

When: This metric can be useful when you only need information about the orientation of a streamline.

Note: Inputs must be vectors (i.e. 1D array).

import numpy as np
from dipy.viz import window, actor
from dipy.segment.clustering import QuickBundles
from dipy.segment.metric import VectorOfEndpointsFeature
from dipy.segment.metric import CosineMetric

# Enables/disables interactive visualization
interactive = False

# Get some streamlines.
streamlines = get_streamlines()  # Previously defined.

feature = VectorOfEndpointsFeature()
metric = CosineMetric(feature)
qb = QuickBundles(threshold=0.1, metric=metric)
clusters = qb.cluster(streamlines)

# Color each streamline according to the cluster they belong to.
colormap = actor.create_colormap(np.arange(len(clusters)))
colormap_full = np.ones((len(streamlines), 3))
for cluster, color in zip(clusters, colormap):
colormap_full[cluster.indices] = color

# Visualization
scene = window.Scene()
scene.clear()
scene.SetBackground(0, 0, 0)
window.record(scene, out_path='cosine_metric.png', size=(600, 600))
if interactive:
window.show(scene)


Showing the streamlines colored according to their orientation.

### References

Garyfallidis12

Garyfallidis E. et al., QuickBundles a method for tractography simplification, Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol 6, no 175, 2012.

Example source code

You can download the full source code of this example. This same script is also included in the dipy source distribution under the doc/examples/ directory.